Truthspace’s Research

In a world of universal deceit telling the truth is a revolutionary act

The David Rockefeller Interview with Benjamin Fulford-Must See

In recent weeks, Benjamin Fulford has certainly had his fill of high profile interviews. If it’s not the former finance minister of Japan or the ‘Ninja’ assassins from the secret societies, then it’s David Rockefeller, in all of his glory, approx. 38 min.

On November 13, 2007 Fulford received a tip that David Rockefeller was on his turf, and without hesitation Fulford arranged to meet with him to ask some questions. It is not odd for a reporter who’s career has been filled with Financial News jobs, to sit down with the former head of Chase Bank, Except when its Benjamin Fulford and David Rockefeller.

Earlier this year Benjamin Fulford interviewed Heizo Takenaka, a former finance minister in Japan and confronted him about “having sold the Japanese financial system over to the Rockefellers and Rothschilds.” According to Fulford this interview made a lot of people angry. He says a professional assassin showed up and told him to accept a job of great importance or be killed. The following day Fulford claims to have been contacted by a powerful Asian Secret Society with more than 6 million members that have targeted the Illuminati. They asked Fulford to represent them, negotiate for them, and offered him protection in return.

Benjamin Fulford was Asia-Pacific Bureau Chief for Forbes Magazine for seven years, until 2005 when he quit because of the “extensive corporate censorship and mingling of advertising and editorial at the magazine.  

The Interview on Google

Bejamin Fulford’s Web Site 

December 3, 2007 Posted by | Illuminati | , , , , , , , , | 6 Comments

Secret Government Database of Vaccine-Damaged Children

Secret Government Database
of Vaccine-Damaged Children

The general public is essentially unaware of the true number of people — mostly children — who have been permanently damaged or killed by vaccines. In fact, most parents would be surprised to learn that the government has a secret computer database filled with several thousand names of disabled and dead babies, children who were healthy and alive just prior to receiving the vaccines. Of course, the medical establishment and federal government don’t readily disclose this information because they know it’s likely to frighten parents into seeking other ways to protect their children. In other words, parents just might think this issue through on their own and decide to reject the shots.

Federal Admission of Vaccine Risks:

In 1986, Congress officially acknowledged the reality of vaccine-caused injuries and death by creating and passing The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (Public Law 99-660). The safety reform portion of this law requires doctors to provide parents with information about the benefits and risks of childhood vaccines prior to vaccination, and to report vaccine reactions to federal health officials. Doctors are required by law to report suspected cases of vaccine damage. To simplify and centralize this legal requisite, federal health officials established the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) — operated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Ideally, doctors would abide by this federal law and report adverse events following the administration of a vaccine. However, the FDA recently acknowledged that 90 percent of doctors do not report vaccine reactions. They are choosing to subvert this law by claiming the adverse event was, in their opinion, not related to the shot. In fact, every year between 12,000 and 14,000 reports of adverse reactions to vaccines are made to the FDA (data initially accessible only through the Freedom of Information Act). These figures include hospitalizations, irreversible brain damage, and hundreds of deaths. Considering that these numbers may represent just 10 percent, the true figures could be as high as 140,000 adverse events annually. However, even this figure could be conservative. According to Dr. David Kessler, former head of the Food and Drug Administration, “Only about 1 percent of serious events [adverse drug reactions] are reported to the FDA.” Thus, it is entirely possible that millions of people are adversely affected by mandatory vaccines every year.

Maybe it doesn’t matter that doctors won’t report vaccine reactions, because the federal government won’t investigate them. Government officials claim VAERS was designed to “document” suspected cases of vaccine damage. No attempt is being made to confirm or deny the reports. Parents are not being interviewed, and the vaccines that preceded the severe reactions are not being recalled. Instead, new waves of unsuspecting parents and innocent children are being subjected to the damaging shots.

Who Pays for Compensation?

In order to pay for vaccine injuries and deaths, a surtax is levied on mandated vaccines. When parents elect to have their children vaccinated, a portion of the money they spend on each vaccine goes into a Congressional fund to compensate them if their child is hurt or killed by the shot.

The compensation portion of the law awards up to $250,000 if the individual dies, or millions of dollars to cover lifelong medical bills, pain, and suffering in the case of a living (but brain-damaged) child. To date, more than $1 BILLION has already been paid out for hundreds of injuries and deaths caused by mandated vaccines. Thousands of cases are pending.

Vaccine Injury Compensation Claims do not include private settlements, or the many families that become dependent on public assistance for medical and living expenses because of vaccine injuries. Therefore, taxpayers subsidize vaccine manufacturers and the federal government by paying for their vaccine-liability expenses.

How Are Vaccines Made?

Vaccine production is a disgusting procedure. To begin, one must first acquire the disease germ — a toxic bacterium or a live virus. To make a “live” vaccine, the live virus must be attenuated, or weakened for human use. This is accomplished by serial passage — passing the virus through animal tissue several times to reduce its potency. For example, measles virus is passed through chick embryos, polio virus through monkey kidneys, and the rubella virus through human diploid cells —-the dissected organs of an aborted fetus! “Killed” vaccines are “inactivated” through heat, radiation, or chemicals.

The weakened germ must then be strengthened with adjuvants (antibody boosters) and stabilizers. This is done by adding drugs, antibiotics, and toxic disinfectants to the concoction: neomycin, streptomycin, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum hydrochloride, sorbitol, hydrolized gelatin, formaldehyde, and thimerosal (a mercury derivative).

Aluminum, formaldehyde, and mercury are extremely toxic substances with a long history of documented hazardous effects. Studies confirm again and again that microscopic doses of these substances can lead to cancer, neurological damage, and death. Yet, each of them may be found in childhood vaccines.

In addition to the deliberately planned additives, unanticipated matter may contaminate the shots. For example, during serial passage of the virus through animal cells, animal RNA and DNA — foreign genetic material — is transferred from one host to another. Because this biological matter is injected directly into the body, researchers say it can change our genetic makeup.

Undetected animal viruses may jump the species barrier as well. This is exactly what happened during the 1950s and 1960s when millions of people were infected with polio vaccines that were contaminated with the SV-40 virus undetected in the monkey organs used to prepare the vaccines. SV-40 (Simian Virus 40 — the 40th such virus detected since researchers began looking), is considered a powerful immunosuppressor and trigger for HIV, the name given to the AIDS virus. It is said to cause a clinical condition similar to AIDS, and has been found in brain tumors, leukemia, and other human cancers as well. Researchers consider it to be a cancer-causing virus.

What happens next, once this foul concoction — live viruses, bacteria, toxic substances, and diseased animal matter — is created? This witch’s brew is forced into the healthy child.

Satanic Rituals:

Dr. Robert Mendelsohn often criticized modern medicine for its sanctimonious doctrine. He argued that “doctors are the priests who dispense holy water in the form of inoculations” to ritually initiate our loyalty into the larger medical industry. Dr. Richard Moskowitz agrees: “Vaccines have become sacraments of our faith in biotechnology. Their efficacy and safety are widely seen as self-evident and needing no further proof.”

Others see a link between vaccinations and satanic rituals or witchcraft, where animals are sacrificed and their organs brewed in a hellish concoction of horrid substances: voodoo medicine by 21st century mad scientists. Sadly, our children are their unwilling subjects as society is slowly devoured by their insatiable appetite for human experimentation.


SECRET DATABASE!

FDA/U.S. GOVERNMENT VACCINE DATABASE (Years 1990-2004)
Every year, the FDA receives thousands of reports of adverse reactions after vaccines. These include brain damage and death. This information is stored in a secret government database and is available through the Freedom of Information Act — or right here from Thinktwice/New Atlantean Press! Serious researchers can now study and analyze 15 years of data — tens of thousands of adverse events filed with the FDA/CDC Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). You will receive the data on a CD disc. The data is easily read with popular word processors, such as Word and Word Perfect or imported into common database programs such as Borland’s Paradox and Microsoft’s Access or Excel. The information can be filtered, sorted, and analyzed in many ways. Categories include vaccines administered, types of reactions, dates of hospitalization or death, and more. Data from 1990 thru August 2004. Code DB15 (1 CD Disc) $25.

http://www.thinktwice.com/secret.htm

facestart.jpg

December 3, 2007 Posted by | Vaccines | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Time For The CDC To Come Clean

Robert F. Kennedy Jr.   Robert F. Kennedy Jr.| BIO

 Time for CDC to Come Clean

Posted March 1, 2006 | 12:09 AM (EST)




Correspondence newly obtained under the Freedom of Information Act raises troubling new questions about CDC’s role in the Thimerosal scandal. Thimerosal is the mercury-based vaccine preservative that has been linked to epidemics of neurological disorders, including autism, in American children born after 1989.

Responding to scientific studies linking dangerous levels of mercury to a range of health disorders, the CDC in July 1999 recommended that the nation’s vaccine makers eliminate Thimerosal as a preservative, “as soon as possible.”

But the newly released documents show that behind the scenes CDC was quietly discouraging Thimerosal’s removal. In a July 1999 letter, vaccine producer SmithKline Beecham tells CDC that it is ready to produce non-Thimerosal DTP (Diptheria/Tetanus/Pertussis) vaccines immediately and has sufficient inventories to supply the entire U.S. market during the remainder of 1999 and the first half of 2000, by which time other vaccine manufacturers would have their Thimerosal-free DTP vaccines on line.

Thimerosal-laden DTP vaccines containing 25 micrograms of mercury apiece were then being administered to American infants at two months, four months and six months — far exceeding EPA’s recommended safe level for mercury. Had CDC accepted SmithKline’s offer, it could have immediately reduced the mercury exposures to vaccinated six-month-old children by 40%.

However, in November, CDC mysteriously sent a letter back rejecting SmithKline’s offer. Then, on July 14, 2000 CDC published a deceptive press release promising to require that all vaccines be Thimerosal-free as soon as “adequate supplies are available.” This was a full 12 months after the agency had denied SmithKline’s proposal.

“If CDC were basing its decision on safety alone, it would have taken SmithKline up on its offer. That’s a no-brainer,” said a federal health official who requested anonymity. “So there were other considerations beside safety that were guiding their decision making.”

Among these “other considerations” were CDC’s important concerns for the preservation of the vaccine program, a bureaucratic impulse for self-preservation, and protecting the economic interests of its vaccine industry friends.

“Immediate withdrawal would send a strong message; ‘We messed up!'” the health official told me. “And I don’t think they wanted to send that message to parents, the public or those considering legal action.”

“There was also concern,” says the federal official, “that an immediate withdrawal might discredit the international vaccine programs for which CDC is an important partner.” The World Health Organization has urged CDC against the banning of Thimerosal in U.S. vaccines since that prohibition might discredit WHO’s third world inoculation programs. WHO, with U.S. funding, is now injecting children in developing countries with the same amounts of Thimerosal we were giving American kids at their highest exposures, but in a shorter time period. In May 2001, WHO committed to “develop a strong advocacy campaign to support the ongoing use of Thimerosal.”

But CDC insiders argue that CDC’s primary concern was the economic impacts on its pharmaceutical industry partners. “The big consideration was cost,” says the federal health official. “A lot of CDC’s friends in the vaccine industry had stockpiled Thimerosal-based vaccines. If they couldn’t sell them the costs would total in the tens of millions of dollars.”

On July 14, 2000 CDC promised to complete the transition to Thimerosal-free vaccines for children by first quarter 2001. But, probably for the reasons stated above, its commitment sometimes seems half-hearted. CDC continues to promote the use of Thimerosal in vaccines. The agency continues to send its top spokesman Roger Bernier around the country to testify before state legislatures to derail state efforts to ban Thimerosal in vaccines. Last week Bernier was testifying against a proposed Thimerosal ban in Maryland.

CDC continues to exert muscular efforts to derail studies of American cohorts — the Amish, Christian Scientists, and home-schooled children — who were not exposed to Thimerosal vaccines. Preliminary studies of these groups indicate very low levels of the neurological disorders, including autism, that have been associated with Thimerosal in vaccinated populations.

It’s time for the CDC to come clean with the American public. Its tactics of deception and obfuscation are jeopardizing the credibility of the entire vaccine program, and therefore posing an enormous danger to public health.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-kennedy-jr/time-for-cdc-to-come-clea_b_16550.html

FAIR USE NOTICE: The above may be copyrighted material, and the use  may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available on a non-profit basis for educational and discussion purposes only. I believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 USC § 107. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If your copyrighted material appears on this web site and you disagree with our assessment that it constitutes “fair use”, contact this web page owner and/or the site administrator to have it removed.

For educational purposes only This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease

 

December 3, 2007 Posted by | Autism, Vaccines | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Autism-Vaccine Debate: Anything But Over

The Autism-Vaccine Debate: Anything But Over

Posted November 30, 2007 | 03:33 PM (EST)Memo to those who wanted the autism-vaccine contretemps to just go away: You lost.

 

 

Exactly five years ago, I began research for my book Evidence of Harm, which looked into the possible link between mercury, vaccines and the tsunami of autism that now overwhelms our education system.

Along the way, I have encountered many people — in the government, in medical circles, in the media, on the Internet – who are furious at my attempts to shed light on this controversy, and utterly contemptuous of parents, doctors and anyone else who supports research into the hypothesized link between autism and vaccines.

Many of these people, incredibly, still insist that autism is purely a genetic disorder with no known “cause” and probably no cure. They blithely claim that autism has always been with us, in the same epidemic numbers we see today, (If you’re the parent of a young boy in New Jersey, by the way, you now face 1-in-60 odds of a diagnosis), we just never noticed, or else counted those kids as “quirky,” or possibly retarded.

Even officials at the CDC, who traced an e-coli outbreak to a single patch of California spinach within months, cannot say if autism is actually on the increase or not.

Some experts, however, are beginning to understand that autism is clearly on the rise and, thus, must have an environmental component, coupled with a genetic underpinning. But they insist that vaccines or their ingredients (ie, mercury, live measles virus, aluminum) have nothing to do with the epidemic.

They really, really want this vexing vaccine chatter to cease. But it won’t.

Buried beneath the usual tumultuous headlines of recent days were three tidbits of news that clearly underscore why this raging, sometimes vitriolic debate is not ending any time soon. In fact, all three reveal significant cracks in the federal government’s hitherto impenetrable fortress of denial of any vaccine-autism link whatsoever:

1) The CDC granted nearly $6 million for investigators at five major research centers to study 2,700 children over the next five years, in what the Contra Costa Times called “the largest-ever U.S. study aimed at solving one of the most perplexing mysteries of modern times: the cause of autism.”

Lisa Croen, the study’s principal investigator in California, told the paper that, “What’s become very clear is that autism results from a combination of having a genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, plus the added extra exposures from environmental factors or other kinds of lifestyle factors.”

Among the “factors” to be studied are family history, events during pregnancy, maternal medications, parental occupation, ambient pollution around the house, and “a child’s vaccination history,” the paper reported.

Oddly, the study will not look at the mercury-based preservative thimerosal. According to the FDA and the Institute of Medicine, the last batches of thimerosal containing vaccines for infants and immune-globulin given to pregnant women expired in late 2003 (except for the flu shot, which is still given to infants and pregnant women).

The new study will only study children born from September 2003 to August, 2005.
But the question remains, and I think it’s legitimate: If an association between vaccines and autism has been completely “ruled out,” then why are we spending taxpayer dollars to study autistic children’s vaccination history?

2) The Department of Health and Human Services announced the formation of a new federal panel, the “Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee,” which will help set public and private research priorities into the cause and treatment of autism, as mandated by the recently passed Combating Autism Act.

Among those named to the panel by HHS Secretary Mike Leavitt were Lyn Redwood, president of the Coalition for Safe Minds (and chief protagonist in my book), and a leading advocate of the mercury-vaccine-autism connection, and Lee Grossman, president and CEO of the Autism Society of America, another staunch supporter of the hypothesis.

Which again begs the question: If the debate over vaccines and autism is over, then why did the Feds appoint two people to this important new panel who will relentlessly push for more taxpayer dollars going into research of vaccines and autism?

3) Lawyers for the US Justice Department and HHS are conceding an autism case that was to be tried in the so-called federal “Vaccine Court,” (officially known as the Autism Omnibus Proceedings of the US Court of Federal Claims), according to papers filed on the court’s on-line docket.

Nearly 5,000 autism cases are pending in Vaccine Court, though a small number of “test cases” are being tried, in which attorneys for the families attempt to link the symptoms of autism to thimerosal and/or the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (or MMR, which never contained mercury). It was a pending test case that the government conceded.

According to my source, however, the government is NOT conceding that mercury or vaccines cause autism. “In this case, the DOJ conceded that vaccines significantly aggravated a child’s pre-existing autistic symptoms,” my source said, “but the autism itself was caused by a congenital mitochondrial disorder that is entirely genetic.”

And, the source noted, “By conceding ‘significant aggravation,’ I think DOJ is trying to avoid ever having this case go to hearing on the underlying causation issue.”

In other words, this was likely going to be a slam-dunk, and the Feds knew it. Rather than risk having the case become a “test” for thousands of other claims, it looks like the DOJ opted to fold and pay out damages to the family, without actually admitting that vaccines can cause autism.

This entirely unreported event raises several interesting questions, I think. To begin with, if the federal government has conceded that vaccines can cause “significant aggravation” to the (even preexisting) autism symptoms of even just one child, shouldn’t the public be notified?

And if the government has conceded that this child would be better off today had he or she not been vaccinated — in other words, that vaccines made the symptoms of autism go from bad to worse – couldn’t it be possible that vaccines might also, say, make symptoms go from mild to bad?

And if the government concedes that vaccines aggravated the symptoms of autism in at least one child, shouldn’t parents of children with the disorder be informed of this, and shouldn’t they be allowed to opt out of future vaccinations, on medical grounds, if they wish?

And if the government concedes that vaccines can aggravate the symptoms of autism, then shouldn’t that same government also earmark funds to research how and why that occurs?

And of course, why on earth would parents concede that there is “no evidence of an association between vaccines and autism,” when the government has just conceded that there was an (albeit not causal) association?

Finally, to all those who are going to post comments about the autism rates in California not coming down, following the removal of thimerosal from most vaccines: You are right. The most likely explanation is that thimerosal was not responsible for the autism epidemic. But that does not mean that it never harmed a single child.

And keep in mind that, of the record 1000+ additional autism cases recorded in California last quarter, some 75% of them were children who were six years of age or older, and thus born well within the “thimerosal generation.” There is evidence that many factors could conceivably be keeping the California numbers higher than the national average, including aggressive early intervention and outreach to low-income families, increased immigration from countries that still use thimerosal (and immigrant children who are routinely re-immunized upon arrival) and migration of families from less progressive U.S. states eager for California’s relative public largesse.

And remember that the CDC, wisely, does not conduct autism prevalence studies on children until they reach the age of 8, to account for any late stragglers entering the database. If thimerosal did not come out of vaccines entirely until 2003, then it won’t be until 2011 before kids in that birth cohort are studied by the CDC, so vindicating thimerosal entirely might still be a tad premature.

All that said, thimerosal may well not be a factor in a single case of autism. But what if one day, we discovered it had caused, say, one percent of all cases? With estimates of autism as high as 1.5 million in the country, that would mean 15,000 Americans who were ravaged by thimerosal (not to mention everyone overseas).

But if thimerosal is vindicated, or shown to be a very minor player, then what about other vaccine ingredients? And what about the rather crowded vaccine schedule we now impose upon families of young children? And what about reports of unvaccinated children in Illinois, California and Oregon who appear to have significantly lower rates of autism? Shouldn’t we throw some research dollars into studying them?

You can answer that, no, we shouldn’t, because the vaccine-autism debate is over.

But I am willing to wager that it has only just begun.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-kirby/the-autismvaccine-debate_b_74853.html

FAIR USE NOTICE: The above may be copyrighted material, and the use may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available on a non-profit basis for educational and discussion purposes only. I believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 USC § 107. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If your copyrighted material appears on this web site and you disagree with our assessment that it constitutes “fair use”, contact this web page owner and/or the site administrator to have it removed.

For educational purposes only This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease

Below is a MSNBC Interview with Robert Kennedy on the Vaccine Autism Coverup

December 3, 2007 Posted by | Vaccines | , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

What They Don’t Tell You About Vaccination Dangers Can Kill You or Ruin Your Life

What They Don’t Tell You About Vaccination Dangers Can Kill You or

Ruin Your Life

By Russell L. Blaylock, M.D.

What Causes the Free Radicals
How Vaccines are Made
What Happens to the Brain With Vaccination?
What Happens When the Brain’s Immune System is Activated?
Direct Effect of the Cytokines
The Role of Autoimmunity and Viral Persistence
Conclusions

After 30 years of intensive research, much has been learned about how brain cells work and what goes wrong when disease arises. One of the great enigmas has been the connection between vaccinations and certain brain disorders such as:

  • Autism
  • ADD
  • ADHD
  • Gulf War Syndrome

More common neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia and ALS)

As we learned more and more about how brain cells should work, we discovered that often normal processes, such as metabolism, could result in the accumulation of powerful chemical byproducts, called free radicals, that have the capacity to destroy these cells.

Free radicals, basically, are very reactive particles that bounce all around the cell damaging everything they touch. Most originate during the process of metabolism but can also arise from toxin exposure, irradiation and toxic metals. Because they are so destructive, cells have a network of defenses designed to neutralize them. This antioxidant network is composed of numerous components that include vitamins, minerals and special chemicals called thiols (glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid).

What Causes the Free Radicals

The idea that free radicals play a major role in all of the conditions listed above is now proven–the big question is why are so many free radicals being generated? In the case of autism, ADD and ADHD many came to support the idea that mercury derived from vaccines was the source of the radicals. And it was known that mercury could cause free radicals to be generated in large numbers within the brain. Evidence connecting mercury to the autism spectrum disorders, neurodegeneration and the Gulf War Syndrome is strong, but not exclusive.

Interestingly, all of these diseases also share another common event–over activation of a portion of the immune system.

It is important to appreciate that only a certain part of the immune system is overactive, because other parts, such as cellular immunity, are actually diminished. In some instances, as with the childhood disorders, the problem is congenital and in others it develops as a result of many factors such as aging, toxin exposure, poor nutrition and excessive vaccination itself. Mercury can impair immune function as well.

How Vaccines are Made

Basically, vaccines contain either killed viruses or bacteria, germ components, toxic extracts or live organisms that have been made less virulent–a process called attenuation. To stimulate an enhanced immune reaction against these organisms, manufacturers added powerful immune-stimulating substances such as squalene, aluminum, lipopolysacchride, etc. These are called immune adjuvants.

The process of vaccination usually required repeated injections of the vaccine over a set period of time. The combination of adjuvants plus the intended organism triggers an immune response by the body, similar to that occurring with natural infections, except for one major difference. Almost none of these diseases enter the body by injection. Most enter by way of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, pulmonary passages or GI tract. For example, polio is known to enter via the GI tract. The membranes lining these passages contain a different immune system than activated by direct injection. This system is called the IgA immune system.

It is the first line of defense and helps reduce the need for intense activation of the body’s immune system. Often, the IgA system can completely head off an attack. The point being that injecting organisms to induce immunity is abnormal.

Because more and more reports are appearing citing vaccine failure, their manufacturers’ answer is to make the vaccines more potent. They do this by making the immune adjuvants more powerful or adding more of them. The problem with this approach is that in the very young, the nutritionally deficient and the aged, over-stimulating the immune system can have an opposite effect–it can paralyze the immune system.

This is especially prevalent with nutritional deficiency.

An early attempt to vaccinate Africans met with disaster when it was discovered that many were dying following vaccination. The problem was traced to widespread vitamin A deficiency among the tribes. Once the malnutrition was corrected, death rates fell precipitously.

Another problem we see with modern vaccines is that the immune stimulation continues over a prolonged period of time.

This is because of the immune adjuvants. They remain in the tissues, constantly stimulating immune-activating cells. With most natural infections the immune activation occurs rapidly, and once the infection is under control, it drops precipitously. This, as we shall see, is to prevent excessive damage to normal cells in the body.

What Happens to the Brain With Vaccination?

It seems the brain is always neglected when pharmacologists consider side effects of various drugs. The same is true for vaccinations. For a long time no one considered the effect of repeated vaccinations on the brain.

This was based on a mistaken conclusion that the brain was protected from immune activation by its special protective gateway called the blood-brain barrier. More recent studies have shown that immune cells can enter the brain directly, and more importantly, the brain’s own special immune system can be activated by vaccination.

You see, the brain has a special immune system that operates through a unique type of cell called a microglia.

These tiny cells are scattered throughout the brain, lying dormant waiting to be activated. In fact, they are activated by many stimuli and are quite easy to activate. For our discussion, activation of the body’s immune system by vaccination is a most important stimuli for activation of brain microglia.

Numerous studies have shown that when the body’s immune system is activated, the brain’s immune cells are likewise activated. This occurs by several pathways, not important to this discussion. The more powerfully the body’s immune system is stimulated the more intense is the brain’s reaction. Prolonged activation of the body’s immune system likewise produces prolonged activation of the brain’s immune system.

Therein lies the danger of our present vaccine policy.

The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Practice have both endorsed a growing list of vaccines for children, even newborns, as well as yearly flu shots for both children and adults. Children are receiving as many as 22 inoculations before attending school.

What Happens When the Brain’s Immune System is Activated?

The brain’s immune system cells, once activated, begin to move about the nervous system, secreting numerous immune chemicals (called cytokines and chemokines) and pouring out an enormous amount of free radicals in an effort to kill invading organisms. The problem is–there are no invading organisms. It has been tricked by the vaccine into believing there are.

Unlike the body’s immune system, the microglia also secrete two other chemicals that are very destructive of brain cells and their connecting processes. These chemicals, glutamate and quinolinic acid, are called excitotoxins. They also dramatically increase free radical generation in the brain. Studies of patients have shown that levels of these two excitotoxins can rise to very dangerous levels in the brain following viral and bacterial infections of the brain. High quinolinic acid levels in the brain are thought to be the cause of the dementia seen with HIV infection.

The problem with our present vaccine policy is that so many vaccines are being given so close together and over such a long period that the brain’s immune system is constantly activated. This has been shown experimentally in numerous studies. This means that the brain will be exposed to large amounts of the excitotoxins as well as the immune cytokines over the same period.

Studies on all of these disorders, even in autism, have shown high levels of immune cytokines and excitotoxins in the nervous system. These destructive chemicals, as well as the free radicals they generate, are diffused throughout the nervous system doing damage, a process called bystander injury. It’s sort of like throwing a bomb in a crowd.

Not only will some be killed directly by the blast but those far out into the radius of the explosion will be killed by shrapnel.

Normally, the brain’s immune system, like the body’s, activates quickly and then promptly shuts off to minimize the bystander damage. Vaccination won’t let the microglia shut down. In the developing brain, this can lead to language problems, behavioral dysfunction and even dementia.

In the adult, it can lead to the Gulf War Syndrome or one of the more common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia or Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS).

A recent study by the world-renowned immunologist Dr. H. Hugh Fudenberg found that adults vaccinated yearly for five years in a row with the flu vaccine had a 10-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. He attributes this to the mercury and aluminum in the vaccine. Interestingly, both of these metals have been shown to activate microglia and increase excitotoxicity in the brain.

Direct Effect of the Cytokines

Various cytokines have been used to treat cancer patients as well as other common diseases.

Studies of the effects of these cytokines on brain function reveal some very close parallels to the diseases we have been discussing. For a more in-depth study of these effects I suggest you read my article appearing in the Journal of the American Nutriceutical Association (volume 6 [fall], Number 4, 2003, pp 21-35) and in the summer issue 2004 of the Journal of the American Association of Physicians and Surgeons.

One can see:

  • Confusion
  • Language difficulties
  • Disorientation
  • Seizures
  • Memory problems
  • Somnolence
  • Low-grade fevers
  • Irritability
  • Mood alterations
  • Combativeness
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • A host of other behavioral problems

In the child, brain immune over-activation has been shown to be particularly damaging to the amygdala and other limbic structures of the brain. This can lead to unusual syndromes such as the loss of “theory of mind” and ” Alice in Wonderland syndrome.” It has also been shown to damage the executive functions of the frontal lobes.

In essence, what is lost is that which makes us social human beings, able to function in a complex world of ideas and interactions.

Several studies have indeed shown elevated levels of cytokines in autistic children. It is also interesting to note that these cytokines, especially interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) dramatically increase the damage produced by excitotoxins. So, what we see is a viscous cycle of immune activation, excitotoxin and cytokine excretion, and free radical production. The latter starts the cycle all over again.

The Role of Autoimmunity and Viral Persistence

Studies in autistic children have shown that a state of immune attack on the brain is occurring. Similar findings are seen with neurodegenerative diseases and the Gulf War Syndrome. It must be appreciated that this autoimmunity was triggered by the vaccinations and by organisms contaminating the vaccinations. Once started, the immune reaction cannot stop, thus triggering all the destructive reactions I have discussed.

Dr. Garth Nicolson has shown a direct connection between mycoplasma contamination of vaccines and the 200 percent increased incidence of ALS in Gulf War veterans. The disorder is produced by the same mechanism described above.

Another, even more common, problem is the use of live viruses in vaccines. The reason live viruses can be used is that they are weakened by passing them through a series of cultures–a process called attenuation. These attenuated, non-disease-causing viruses are then injected in hopes of stimulating the body to produce an immune attack.

The problem with this idea is two-fold.

First, we now know that in far too many cases these viruses escape the immune system and take up residence in the body–for a lifetime. A recent autopsy study of elderly individuals found that 20 percent of the brains contained live measles viruses and 45 percent of the other organs contained live measles viruses. Similar findings have been described in autistic children and the measles virus is identical genetically to the one used in the vaccine.

The second problem is that most of these viruses were found to be highly mutated. In fact, different mutations were found among viruses in various organs in the same individual.

This has been a secret kept from the public.

These attenuated viruses undergo mutation brought on by the presence of free radicals in the tissues and organs and they can mutate into virulent, disease-causing organisms. Recent studies have confirmed this frightening finding. In fact, a large percentage of Alzheimer’s disease patients have live viruses in their brain as compared to normal individuals.

Once these live viruses are injected, they cannot be removed. Because the viruses stay in the body, they will be under constant free radical exposure, which can increase during times of stress, illness, exercise and with aging. It is the free radicals that cause the virus to mutate.

In essence, the viruses can exist in the brain, or any organ, either silently and slowly producing destruction of the brain or spinal cord or producing sudden disease once the virus mutates to a highly lethal form.

Conclusions

We have seen that the policy of giving numerous vaccinations to individuals, especially infants and small children, is shear idiocy.

A considerable number of studies have shown conclusively that such a practice can lead to severe injury to the brain by numerous mechanisms. Because the child’s brain is undergoing a period of rapid growth from the third trimester of pregnancy until age 2 years, his or her brain is at considerable risk from this insane policy.

We have also seen that live-virus vaccines and contaminated vaccines hold a special risk in that the viruses tend to persist in a substantial number of individuals and that free radicals can cause the latent viruses to transform by genetic mutation into disease-causing organisms later in life.

It is vital that anyone scheduled for vaccination follow a schedule that allows no more than one vaccine every six months, allowing the immune system time to recover.

Live-virus vaccines should be avoided.

This was recently illustrated by the switch from the live polio vaccine to the killed virus. All cases of polio after the introduction of the vaccine, in the developed world, came from the vaccine itself. This was known from the beginning.

Finally, it is vital that anyone undergoing vaccination should start nutritional supplementation and adhere to a healthy diet before vaccination occurs. Vaccine complications are far fewer in individuals with good nutrition.

http://mercola.com/2004/may/12/vaccination_dangers.htm

 

December 3, 2007 Posted by | Vaccines | | 1 Comment

Fighting Free Radicals: The Role of Bark Extractives

 

Fighting Free Radicals: The Role of Bark Extractives

by Kelvin Duncan, Ph.D. (more info)
listed in antioxidants, originally published in issue 44 – September 1999

A stand of young Pinus radiata

The rapidly growing volume of evidence in the scientific literature about the nature and role of free radicals has lead to an increasing awareness of their importance in health and disease. Free radicals have been implicated in a great number of human conditions and the literature on the subject is vast (Ames et al., 1993, Bland, 1995, Diplock, 1994, Halliwell, 1996 and the references in Table 1).

Table 1. Recent references to health conditions in which flavonoids are thought to be beneficial.

Disease/Benefit
Degenerative disease/ helps prevent or slow down
General diseases/ prevents or ameliorates
Cancer and cardiovascular/ protects
Inflammatory bowel disease/ helps
Heart attacks/ reduced risk
Strokes/ reduced risk
Clots/ prevent abnormal clots
Endothelial cells/ protect and strengthens
Plaque/ reduced rate of formation
Hair/ increases hair growth and follicle cell density
Anti-inflammatory, esp. arthritis/ reduces

Oedema/ reduces
Tumours/ inhibits early tumours
Tumours/ reduces incidence of spontaneous tumours in elderly mice
Allergies/ anti-allergenic
Carcinogens and mutagens/ chemoprotective
Skin cancer/ reduces or prevents skin cancers induced by UV
Prostate cancer/ anticarcinogenic against prostate cancer
Insulitis/ protect pancreas and help lower or prevent insulitis
.

HIV, may help HIV

Reference
Ames et al., 1993

.
Cross et al., 1987
Gey, 1993
Grishanan, 1994
Hertog et al., 1993
Keli et al., 1996
Rice-Evans, 1996
Kaneko et al., 1999
Xu et al., 1998
Takashashi et al., 1999
You et al., 1999
Pelzer et al., 1998,
Lairir-Chatterjee et al., 1999
Duncan, 1998
Cheong et al., 1998
Sohn et al., 1998

.
Ahmad et al., 1998
.

Zi et al., 1998
Soto, et al., 1998
Scrhramm & German, 1998
Kitamura, et al., 1998

However, not all free radical reactions in the body are harmful; some are entirely natural and are necessary for the correct functioning of many metabolic processes. (Cheesman and Slatter, 1993). These benign, natural free radicals do not concern us here since they are well controlled by the body’s metabolism. Rather it is the damaging free radicals, which are largely caused by non-natural events, that are the focus of this article.

How do free radicals form?

Free radicals can form naturally since some of the body’s molecules have weak bonds that spontaneously break and cause the molecule to become a free radical. Also, for unknown reasons a small proportion of normal oxidative reactions result in the formation of free radicals. Other causes of damaging free radicals are ionising radiation, such as light, or ultra violet, or other forms of radiation. Mariner’s skin, that scourge of skin which makes people look far older than they really are, is a result of excessive exposure to light and to UV radiation: the skin changes in thickness, it becomes dehydrated, its collagen becomes thickened and hardened, and wrinkles and dryness result. Radioactivity, whether from natural or man made sources, also causes free radicals to form. Finally, a great number of chemicals, especially human-
produced synthetic compounds can cause free radical formation.

Antioxidants

The damaging effects of free radicals can be countered by antioxidants. These work by either stopping free radical damage by donating an electron without becoming a damaging free radical themselves, or by preventing oxidation commencing.

There are three main types of antioxidants that are important in human metabolism. These are: antioxidant enzymes produced by the body; essential nutritional dietary compounds such as vitamin C, and small plant-derived substances which intercept free radicals and prevent them from causing damage. The full range of antioxidants found in the body include vitamins C and E, carotenes, glutathionine, uric acid, taurine, and plant flavonoids and flavonoid derivatives, and some other compounds. This article considers only the flavonoids, which are small compounds synthesised by plants, but not animals, so must be taken in our diet. They are water soluble compounds based on a unit involving carbon ring structures containing phenols (-OH) groups. There are more than four thousand known, not all of which have antioxidant activity, and a great number remain to be discovered (Colgan 1994). They scavenge free radicals without becoming themselves becoming damaging free radicals or causing other chemical species to become free radicals.

In living plants, flavonoids are produced as pigments, defences against fungi and bacteria, anti-parasitics, and as antioxidants protecting against cellular oxidative stress.

Tree bark in history

Tree bark is a particularly rich source of a wide variety of kinds of medicinal compounds, and this has been known to many cultures for many centuries. Two thousand years ago Hippocrates, the Greek physician known as the father of medicine, recommended chewing on white willow bark to relieve pain and fever. In England, this was a common practice in the Renaissance. The active ingredient was isolated in 1828 and was given its current name, salicylic acid in 1938. It was stabilised in 1897 as acetylsalicylic acid. Even though the new product enjoyed great market success, its mode of action was not known until John Vane, a British Pharmacologist, found that they inhibited the body’s production of prostaglandins that promote inflammation and thereby cause pain. Vane received a Nobel Prize for this work. Salicylic acid, a natural product, has been found to have widespread and beneficial effects on many human conditions, including heart attacks and strokes (Graeda and Ferguson 1993).

Decoctions or infusions of barks and leaves were commonly used as poultices and therapies throughout Europe and Asia. The great navigator, Captain James Cook, was well aware of the value of bark and leaves as antiscorbutics (antiscurvy agents). After an enormously long and difficult voyage to New Zealand he would set out to collect materials for “spruce beer”, an optimistic name designed, no doubt, to make the bitter concoction more palatable to his reluctant crew. Spruce, or white, or Norwegian beer was well known then, as it continues to be today, and even if not loved, it was at least accepted for its effects! But Cook’s spruce beer was neither spruce, nor was it beer. What it was is revealed in a letter he wrote to the errant Furneaux, the captain of the accompanying ship on the second of Cook’s voyages. Unlike Cook, Furneaux had a serious scurvy problem amongst his crew because he had not previously followed Cook’s detailed instructions. So, in his letter Cook gave instructions to “brew” beer of the inspissated (thickened) juice of wort, essence of spruce and tea plants. By spruce he meant anything that vaguely resembled spruce, since there was then no spruce in New Zealand, and by tea plants he meant manuka-like plants. Manuka is a ubiquitous and cheerfully scruffy charmer of a scrub or small tree in New Zealand. Like many plants, Manuka contains powerful anti-microbial compounds and other useful biologically active ingredients. Recent work has shown that those evergreen southern equivalents to conifers, the Podocarps, to which Cook’s “spruce” belongs, have an abundance of flavonoids . As much as they hated his brews, Cook’s crews did consume them and their health was remarkably good (Hough 1994). Cook delivered a paper to the Royal Society describing his work in conquering scurvy and other health problems on long sea voyages. He did not claim to have discovered the health benefits of vegetables and plant extracts, as others had experimented with such diets and treatments earlier, but his fame was such that he was greatly instrumental in popularising them to the enormous benefit of seafarers’ health.

Asian cultures used bark extensively to treat and heal. Indian Ayurvedic medicine has a 5000 year history. Punarvasu in about 800 BC, wrote the Susrita Samhita which describes 1500 plants and 300 medicines of therapeutic value. Barks are important components of Ayurvedic practice. The bark of the arjuna tree has been used for at least 3000 years for the treatment of heart failure and for reducing the swelling due to fluid accumulation in ankles and legs when the heart is not pumping properly. This traditional use has been confirmed by western science and it is used by many healers today including Western-trained healers.

The dried bark of the varuna tree has provided relief from kidney and bladder stones. It is now being used in Western medicine to prevent stone formation and related urinary tract infections (Chevellier 1996).

The Chinese, too, have used bark products in their traditional medicine for very many centuries. A herbal and medicinal source book, written over 2500 years ago, the Shen Nung Pen Tsao Ching of China lists over 360 medicinal drugs made from plants. Barks are used extensively. Every Chinese herbalist uses a wide variety of barks, each with its own characteristics and specific uses. Cinnamon, the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia, is used to control fever and diarrhoea, to aid menstrual problems, and to soothe indigestion. Recently, scientific medicine has confirmed its potency as an antiseptic agent and has shown its potency in reducing the insulin dependency in diabetics. Magnolia barks are prescribed in Chinese herbal medicine as a skeletal muscle relaxant, analgesic and anti-hypertensive. Phelledendron spp., are commonly prescribed to treat diarrhoea and inflammation (Griggs, 1993).

Extensive research in China and Japan is elucidating the active ingredients in these remedies, but only a small fraction of the myriad complex compounds in bark have been identified.

Polynesian and American indigenous people also made use of bark (Whistler, 1991; MacDonald, 1993, Garrett and Garrett, 1996; Wyatt, 1994).

Industrial preparation of flavonoids

Today, various barks are used extensively for health purposes. Following the great success of Taxol, there has been a massive search by ethnobotanists and biochemists for useful bark extractives and a number of useful substances have been discovered. Bark flavonoids are amongst the most useful. They can be extracted industrially using solvent extraction or hot water extraction. This process isolates and concentrates the flavonoids by partitioning them between two different phases of mutually insoluble solvents – like oil and water. More of the desired compounds dissolve in one phase and the unwanted material in the other so it is then easy to separate the two phases mechanically. Further purification can be undertaken by “salting out” – precipitation of the desired material by adding increasing amounts of common salts, such as magnesium sulphate. The salt remains in solution but throws the less soluble flavonoids out of solution as a precipitate so they can be collected. The trouble is that these two processes, solvent partitioning and salting out, do not yield completely pure products. Some of the undesirable compounds get through, necessitating repeated cycles of solvent extraction and salting down in order to obtain yields of sufficient purity. But three main problems still remain with this approach: solvent residues may contaminate the product, undesirable by-products may contaminate the product, and micro-organisms may survive the processing to be present in the product. Furthermore, the process is expensive.

In contrast, the process used to produce a recent new product – enzogenol – is based on water extraction in the absence of oxygen (to prevent the possibility of oxidation of the flavonoids) of clean and selected bark from the Monterey Pine – a coastal species from the Pacific Northwest of North America which is grown extensively in New Zealand. The desired mixture of flavonoids can be selected from the decoction or liquor by a purely physical process. This excludes all the undesirable by- products and micro-organisms to yield a very pure product of controlled composition. The by-products are used as a soil enhancer, so no wastes are produced from the process. Even the water can be recycled (Gilmour in Duncan, 1998).

Bark as a source of antioxidants

Why should bark contain so many antioxidants? The reason is that oxidative stress is a great problem faced by the stem of trees. Stems are intended to last many decades or centuries, so that they have to have powerful and long-lasting protection against attack, decay and disease. Bark is the structure that performs this protection, and since oxygen diffuses from the outside of the stem through the bark, antioxidants are present in the bark and the tissues immediately underneath it so as to provide protection in the event of free radical formation.

Table 2. Kinds of flavonoids and their origin
The six classes of flavonoids:
flavonones, found in citrus
flavones, found in herbs
flavonols, found in all fruits and vegetables
isoflavonoids, found in legumes
anthocyanidins and flavans, found in fruits.None are synthesised by animals, and our sources are entirely from the plants we eat. We should eat a wide variety of types and not rely on only a few.

Human metabolism does produce some antioxidants naturally, but these are not sufficient to combat all the free radicals formed in our bodies. We rely on dietary sources to augment and complete our defences. The trouble is that the rate of formation of free radicals has probably increased over the last few centuries due to increas- ing sources of free radical forming agents as industrial processes extend further and further into our lives. Further- more, our diet has become more and more deficient in free radicals owing to changing dietary habits away from sources rich in antioxidants (raw leafy vegetables, onion, nuts, fruits) toward overly processed foods from which flavonoids, Vitamin E and many other nutrients have been removed. More people are living longer, so these two influences are affecting more and more people. It seems a great pity that modern food processors exploit our two Achilles heels of diet – our fondness for fat and sugar. Most of us are far too fond of these for our own good. This was not a problem when our only sources of food had limited amounts of fats and sugars, but today we can greatly modify our food and over-process it to an extent that it poses a risk to human well being. Nor do I believe that supplementation of these over-processed foods by adding back in synthetic forms of the extracted nutrients is at all wise. There is evidence that such practices are doubly inimical to human health – not only has the over processing removed essential nutrients, the addition of synthetic forms of these poses chronic risk through the loading of the body with antichiral synthetics (manufactured forms of nutritional or medical compounds which have the correct gross chemistry, but which have the wrong stereoisometry for appropriate biochemical action).

Determining the health value of flavonoids

There are six main ways by which the effects of dietary flavonoids on human health may be evaluated: direct measurement of oxidative stress levels, epidemiological studies, repeated measures tests, laboratory (in vitro or in glass) biochemical or cytological studies, randomised double blind trials, and animal testing.

We can measure the site and extent of oxidative stress in human subjects by urine analysis. The beneficial effects of antioxidants can be assessed by measuring the decrease in oxidative stress levels following administration of dietary supplements. This is being researched at the present time and results are still to be evaluated, but initial results appear extremely promising.

Epidemiological studies can be divided into two types: observational and experimental. Observational studies compare the incidence of disease and longevity in flavonoid-rich populations, such as in the Mediterranean countries, with flavonoid-poor countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States. The results indicate that a flavonoid-rich diet does, indeed, lead to increased longevity and better health, but other factors, such as genetic factors, may be involved. It is essential to maintain a wide range of different flavonoids from a variety of sources if you rely on natural dietary sources alone.

Experimental epidemiological studies rely on repeated measures, which are a scientific kind of “before and after” studies. An example of such studies is the Spanish women smokers study completed last year. Little benefit was recorded in lowering the incidence or outcome of lung cancer from a diet rich in flavonoids, but this is what may be expected in such a rampant form of cancer as lung cancer. Other studies have indicated that flavonoid supplements have very great benefits in both preventing diseases and in mitigating their effects.

Laboratory studies have shown that plant-derived antioxidants have great antioxidant activity. Platelet aggregation, thrombosis formation and plaque deposition are all reduced, thus explaining the epidemiological observations of reduced incidence of strokes and heart disease. The effects of flavonoids on cancer formation and propagation are also becoming understood. Again, the evidence is accumulating that flavonoids can help prevent certain cancers forming, growing and undergoing metastasis.

However, randomised double blind clinical trials of chronic effects of flavonoids are not as common, mainly because of expense and experimental difficulties. If you are studying the rate and age of onset chronic degenerative diseases it is scarcely practical to undertake clinical trials of twenty or thirty year duration. For similar reasons, “longitudinal” (life long) animal trials are rare. They are very expensive and are liable to be affected or destroyed by factors beyond control. The longer the duration of the experiment, the more likely these destructive events are to occur. So chronic experimentation, whether it is by the double blind methodology or fully controlled animal trials, tends to be rare. There have been some, however. Trials on vinegar flies in the early 1970s showed greatly increased longevity, and recent trials on mice have shown greatly reduced incidence of spontaneous old-age cancers, healthier and thicker coats, better cognitive skills, and increased longevity (Duncan, 1998).

Short-term studies of flavonoids are more popular amongst researchers. Recent studies are given in the references to this article.

Other benefits of flavonoids

Besides combating free radicals, flavonoids have been shown to have other beneficial effects including: adhesion receptor expression, slowing down or preventing bacterial replication (one of their main functions in living plants), slowing down viral replication, inhibiting proteolytic enzyme action, oestrogenic effects and carbohydrate induced AGE, (advanced glycosylation end products, where glucose and its polymers bond on to protein and cause the proteinacous materials of the body to become mucoid or amyloid material that “gums up the works”. An example of this is ageing of skin where collagen thickens and becomes less flexible because of glycosylation, and less flexible because of the cross linking due again to glycosylation. This, coupled with the loss of subdermal fat due to free radical damage and glycosylation, causes the appearance of old skin).

Conclusion

Free radicals are implicated as a major cause of many disease states in the human body, particularly chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as arthritis, heart disease and cancer. There is a great deal of evidence suggesting that positive health benefits can be achieved by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, a healthier diet richer in flavonoids and taking dietary supplements if the normal diet is deficient in flavonoids. The incidence of oxidative cell damage and general degenerative diseases is lowered by dietary flavonoids. There is also excellent evidence that the onset of these conditions can be delayed or even prevented by diets rich in flavonoids.

References

Ahmad N et al. 1998. Skin cancer chemopreventive effects of a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin are mediated via impairment of receptor tyrosine kinase. Biochem.& Biophys. Res. Comms. 247:294-301.
Ames B N et al. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of ageing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:7915-7922.
Bland J S. 1995. Oxidants and antioxidants in clinical medicine: past, present and future potential. J. Nutr. & Env. Med. 5:255-280.
Cheesman, K H and Slatter, T F. 1993. An Introduction to Free Radical Biochemistry. British Medical Bulletin 49:481-493.
Cheong H et al. 1998. Studies of structural activity relationships of flavonoids for the anti-allergic actions. Arch. Pharm. Res. 21:478-480.
Chevellier, A. The Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorking Kindersley. 1995.
Colgan, M. The New Nutrition. Medicine for the Millennium. C I Publications, San Diego. 1994.
Cross C E et al. 1987. Oxygen radicals and disease – Proceedings of the Davis Conference. Ann. Int. Med. 107:526-545.
Diplock A T. 1994. Antioxidants and disease prevention. Molec. Aspect. Med. 15:293-376.
Duncan, K W. (ed.) Fighting Free Radicals: the Enzogenol Story. (NZ & Australian Edition). The Pacific Scientific Press, Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand. 1998.
Garrett, J T and M Garrett. Medicine of the Cherokee. Bear and Company, Santa Fe. 1996.
Gey K F. 1993. Prospects for the prevention of free radical disease, regarding cancer and cardiovascular disease. Brit. Med. Bull. 49(3):679-699.
Greada, J & T Ferguson. The Aspirin Handbook. Garden Enterprises, Melbourne. 1993.
Griggs, B. New Green Pharmacy (2nd Edition). Vermillion, London. 1989.
Grisham M B. 1994. Oxidants and free radicals in inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet 344:1356.
Halliwell B. 1996. Antioxidants in health and disease. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 16: 33-50.
Hertog M G L et al. 1993. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen elderly study. Lancet 342
Hough, R. Captain James Cook. A Biography. Coronet Books, London. 1984.
Kaneko T et al. 1999. Protective effect of flavonoids on endothelial cells against linoleic acidhydroperoxide-induced toxicity. Biosc. Biotech. & Biochem. 63:3232-328.
Keli S O et al. 1996. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins and incidence of stroke. Arch. Intern. Med. 156.
Kitamura, et al. 1998. Baicalin, an inhibitor of HIV-1 production in vitro. Antiviral Research 37:131-140.
Lahiri-Chatterjee M et al. 1999. A flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, affords exceptionally high protection against tumour promotion in the SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Cancer Research 59:622-632.
MacDonald, C. Medicines of the Maori. William Collins, Auckland. 1993.
Pelzer L E et al. 1998. Acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects of plant flavonoids. Farmaco 53:421-424.
Rice-Evans C A et al. 1996. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Rad. Biol. & Med. 20(7).
Scrhramm D D, & German J B. 1998. Potential effects of flavonoids on the etiology of vascular disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 9(10):560-566.
Sohn S J et al. 1998. Antigenotoxicity of galangin against n-methyl-n-nitrosourea. Mutat. Res. 402:231-236.
Soto C P et al. 1998. Prevention of alloxin-induced diabetes mellitus in the rat by silymarin. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C: Comp. Pharm. & Tox. 119:125-129.
Takahashi T et al. 1999. Procyanidin oligomers selectively and intensively promote proliferation of mouse hair epithelial cells in vitro and activate hair follicle cells in vivo. J. Invest. Dermat. 112:310-316.
Whistler, W A. Polynesian Herbal Medicine. National London Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii. 1991.
Wyatt, J. 1994. The Roots of North American Medicine. Indian Life Magazine 15:3.
Xu et al. 1998. Effect of dietary catechin and vitamin E on aortic fatty streak accumulation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Atherosclerosis 137: 29-36.
You K M et al. 1999. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase from human platelets by polyhydroxylated/methoxylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants. Arch. Pham. Res. 22:18-24.
Zi X L et al. 1998. A flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, inhibits activation of ERBBI signaling and induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, G1 arrest, and anticarcinogenic effects in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Cancer Res. 58:1920-1929.

http://www.positivehealth.com/article-view.php?articleid=59

December 3, 2007 Posted by | Antioxidants | | Leave a comment